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         (Facility) The equivalent of 24 multiplexed voice grade channels. 1.544 million bits per second (1.5Mbps)

         (Facility) The equivalent of 4 multiplexed T1 channels. 6.312 million bits per second (6.3Mbps)

         (Facility) The equivalent of 28 multiplexed T1 channels. 44.736 million bits per second (45 Mbps)

         (Facility) The equivalent of 6 multiplexed T3 channels. 274.176 million bits per second (274 Mbps)

    Tandem Office
        A major telco switching center for the switched telephone network, which interconnects two or
        more central offices that cannot directly be connected; a major switching center linking several
        end offices, especially in high-density areas.  Toll Office - Class 4 Switch. Hierarchical interconnection
        for Class 5 End Offices.

        A public document filed with the FCC or a PUC that outlines services and rates. Usually, all
        customers are offered the same  rate for a specific service, based on published constraints.

    Tax Exempt Certificate
         A document that verifies tax exempt status. Usually filed with an RBOC.  There is a field on all
        Access Service Requests to indicate the filing status.

    Tax Identification Number
         A unique identifier for business organizations that is used for reporting tax payments to the
        government (similar to the social  security number for individuals).

    TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
         A data communication standard for interconnection of dissimilar networks and computing systems.
         Standardized system for network signal.

    TE - Terminal Equipment
        Terminal equipment represents the endpoint of ATM connection(s) and termination of the various
        protocols within the connections(s).

         A person familiar with installation and maintenance of  hardware and/or software systems.

        Live, two-way audio transmission between two or more locations. Usually includes speaker
        phones and microphone  amplification systems that allow audio volume balancing for people
        at different locations from the microphone. May also be supported by the use of FAX machines, etc.

        An application that provides virtual terminal services for a wide variety of remote systems. It
        allows a user at one site to interact with applications at other sites as if the user's terminal
        is local.

        A pattern (e.g. a cookie cutter) used to replicate objects, circuits, records, etc. (C++)
        A facility for creating  parameterized class (type) definitions. (SMS/800) A standard
        pattern defined by an IXC  that specifies the limits and boundaries (NPAs, LATAs, etc.)
        of 800 routing.

    Theoretical Midpoint - TMP
        The theoretical halfway point that divides an international private line circuit into its respective
        US and foreign halves. A US records carrier is responsible for the US portion of service and
        a foreign records carrier assumes responsibility for service to the foreign half.

    Third Party
        A product or service vendor (other than the primary vendor or customer) that supplies a
        necessary component of a system.  (e.g. software, circuit cards, etc.)

    Third Party Billing
        Use of an outside service bureau for bill processing such as: call rating, customer invoicing,
        collections, etc.

        The end result of data transmission (for a given period of time). It is a measure of the overall
        efficiency, quality and  performance of a communications link and its software protocols.

    TIIAP - Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance Program
        A grant program from the National  Telecommunications and Information Administration of
        the United States Department of Commerce, established by Congress  in fiscal year 1994
        to assist non-profit organizations and units of state and local government to undertake projects
        which contribute to the building of a national information infrastructure. Submitted by Don Druker,
        U.S Dept. of Commerce -- Nov. 4,  1994.

         3 seconds in a communications switch.

    Tie Line
        Two-way transmission circuits that typically directly connect a PBX in one location to a PBX
        in one location to a PBX in  another. Tie lines are normally arranged for two-way calling. Calls
        from an extension at one location can be placed to an  extension at the distant location by
        dialing a short access number. In most cases, this type of circuit is terminated with a  four-wire
        analog local loop on both ends and uses MF signaling with E & M supervision. Tie lines can be
        used to support  voice and/or data.

    Time Division Multiplexing - TDM
        A method of mixing multiple signals on a single channel by transmitting in tightly controlled time
        slots. Unlike packet  switching, TDM does not allow resource balancing during periods of mixed
        high and low use of different signals.

    Time of Day Routing
        Route calls based on the time the call originates. (e.g. direct morning calls to East Coast
        operators and afternoon calls to  West Coast operators, etc.). SMS/800 supports 15 minute
        time intervals.

    Titan 5500
        The DACS/DCC/DCS equipment manufactured by Tellabs, and deployed by the CLEC/ICP at several hubs and switch sites.  Equipment has the capacity of 1,024 DS-3's, or 28,672 DS-1s and 688,128 DS-0s.

    TL1 - Transaction Language 1
        Currently the primary language used to encode an alarm message for certain kinds of transmission equipment.

    Token Ring
        An IBM LAN-based LAN protocol that uses a ring-shaped network topology. Token Ring has speeds of 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps.  A distinguishing packet is transferred from machine to machine and only the machine that is in control of the token is able to transmit.

         A rated call (Contrast CDR - unrated call detail record). Tolls appear on the Invoice Detail.

    Toll Call
         A call with incremental use (minute-by-minute) charges. (Often through a Class 4 Toll Office).

    Toll Fraud
        A crime in which a "hacker" obtains telecommunication services by: breaching computer
        security, using or selling stolen  long-distance credit-card codes, or, accessing a PBX
        and using its communication facilities illegally. Toll Fraud is estimated  to cost U.S.
        companies $1.2 billion/year.

        Bellcore defined interface for the SMS portion of the DMS-100 that receives the POTS
        or analog service from the customer site.  Does not contain ISDN support feature.

    Tracing Lamp
        A lamp or light-emitting diode (LED) provided as part of a standard DSX patch and cross-
        connect circuit that aids in locating the two ends of a cross-connect.  Inserting a plug into
        the monitor jack at one end of a cross-connect causes the tracing lamps at both ends to

         Activity on a network or an individual circuit.

    Traffic Engineering
        The process or the organization responsible for monitoring historical network use statistics,
        anticipating growth trends, planning, designing and implementing network facilities.

    Transition Panel
        Frame hardware that allows jumpers to transition from the front of a DSX lineup to the rear.
        The transition panel is needed where a newer DSX is used in the same lineup adjacent to the
        older DSX which has rear-running jumpers.

    Transmission Mode
        Classification based on: (1) data flow (simplex, half duplex, full duplex), (2) Physical connection
        (parallel, serial), and (c)  timing (asynchronous, synchronous).

    Transmission System
        The foundation of communication capacity between two points. It is governed by the equipment
        type generating the (optical)  signals. The capacity of a single fiber can be increased by installing
        higher-speed (higher-cost) transmission systems  (end-to-end).

        A driver and a source used to change electrical signals into optical signals.

        The installed cable, switches and equipment that carries a phone signal.  The transport system could include CLEC/ICP lines hooked to the LEC, which in turn hooks to an IXC, which hooks to the receiving LEC and to the callers final destination.

    Travel (Card) Service
        A telecommunication credit card with an Authorization Code for using a long distance carrier when the
        customer is away from  their home or office (ANI). Travel Service calls are charged to the customer to
        whom the AuthCode was issued.

        An application-specific process invoked by a database management system as a result of a request
        to add, change, delete,  or retrieve a data element.

    Trouble Ticket
        A piece of paper or a record in a computer system used to report and manage the resolution of
        network or circuit outages.

        A (high-capacity) connection between switches. From a customer perspective, trunk may refer
        to an external (carrier) line  connected to CPE/PBX, including local exchange lines, WATS lines
        and dedicated private lines. Customer trunks may be  outgoing only, incoming only or two-way.

    Trunk Group
         A group of circuits of a common type that originate from the same location.

    Trunk Member
         A single circuit in a Trunk Group.

    Trunk-Side Connection
        A telephone circuit connected to a telephone company central office through a switch port that
        has been programmed to treat the circuit as a trunk circuit connecting to another central
        office.  These offer all of the network transmission and signaling features appropriate for a
        circuit interconnecting two central office switches.

         Completing the installation of a circuit and making it available to the customer that requested it.

    Twisted Pair
        A circuit comprised of two copper wires that are twisted to cancel their own radio frequency
        interference, and thus reduce noise that might otherwise be induced into adjacent circuits.

    Two Out Of Three Rule
        When determining state tax jurisdiction, there are three locations to consider: originating station, destination station, and the location that the bill is sent to. If two out of three are the same, then that state receives the tax.

    Two-Way Conversation
        A telephone conversation between or among two (or more) parties, where each party has the ability to both transmit and  receive communication from the other party (or parties).

    Type 1 Service
        Customers who are hooked directly to the CLEC/ICP network, from their premises to the CLEC/ICP's central office (hub); or, otherwise known as On-Net.

    Type 2 Service
        Customers who are hooked to the CLEC/ICP network through the LEC, or who are only billing customers of the CLEC/ICP and may never be hooded in the CLEC/ICP network. This is known as Off-Net.

    Type 3 Service
        Customers who are co-located at the CLEC/ICP's end offices.

    Type 4 Service
        Customers who handle the connections between their offices and the LEC, (the CLEC/ICP usually performs this task), and are hooked to the CLEC/ICP network from the LEC co-location.  An IXC could also be this type of customer for the CLEC/ICP.


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Revised: February 16, 2011
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