It's a good time to pray for victims of September 11, 2001 terrorist activities!


R - Y
    See red minus luminance (R - Y)

    See responsible organization (RO and resporg)

    See remote access (RA)

    See Research and Development for Advanced Communications in Europe

A frame on which equipment is mounted.

rack-mount modem
    A stand-alone framework that stores multiple adapters and connects to
the RS-232 port of a PC.

    See rapid application design and development.
rapid application design and development (RAD)

radio channel
    The band of frequencies wide enough to allow radio communications.

radio circuit
    A circuit fixed between two points using a radio bearer.

radio common carrier (RCC)
    A communications common carrier that provides radio paging and mobile
telephone services to the public.

radio common carrier number (RCCN)
    800 exchange numbers that are reserved for use by radio common carriers (RCCs).

radio communications
    Telecommunications over radio waves.                                                                         

radio frequency
    The frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio transmission; usually above 150 kHz.

radio frequency interference (RFI) 
    Noise caused by any source that generates radio waves at the same frequency and along the same path of another radio wave and that interferes with radio reception.

radio paging
Transmission of a radio signal to customers carrying pocket radio receivers (beepers) which emit a buzz or beep tone. The customer then can answer the page by dialing an answering code from a
station within the PBX.

radio wave 
An electromagnetic wave with frequencies between 10 kHz and3,000,000 MHz, propagated without guide in free space.

random access
    The ability to retrieve stored data directly, rather than sequentially.

range rate tariffs 
    Tariffs that list a range of rates, as opposed to specific rates. The carrier may charge any rate within the range. In contrast, some states have adopted bonded rates requiring the filing of
specific rates, but they have also streamlined the procedures for price changes within the specified rate band.

    See revenue accounting office (RAO)

rapid application design and development (RAD)
    An incremental, spiral model, just-in-time progression for system development from
requirements analysis through prototyping, validation, development, installation, and enhancement.

rapid cycle development (RCD) 
    See rapid application design and development (RAD)

rapid deployment system
    A "bare-bones" video conferencing system, including codec, packaged in air-transportable containers and permitting rapid setup, intended for establishing videoconferencing in emergency and crisis situations.

    See Regional Administrative Radio Conference (RARC)

    See Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)

ratcheting credits
    Credits applied when special access entrance facilities are used for switched service.

rate averaging
    A method of setting prices for telephone calls on the basis of distance rather than routing path.

rate base
    The total investment on which a regulated telephone company is entitled to earn a specified rate of return.

rate center (RC)
    A specified geographic location used by a telephone company to determine interexchange mileage for rating purposes.

rate code 
    1) The name of the rate plan used. 2) Rates charged per product.

rate element 
    A recurring fixed charge for interexchange carrier (IEC) or local exchange carrier (LEC) service at the lowest level. A local loop may have multiple rate elements associated with it. Rate elements
make up the fixed portion of a subscriber's monthly bill, for example:  local access, local mileage, entrance facilities, and channel termination.

rate group 
    A classification used by telephone companies to determine a customer's flat rate for local service. A customer's rate group is based on the number of telephone numbers a customer can call from their exchange without paying long distance charges.

rate of return 
    The percentage of net profit that a telephone company is licensed to earn on its rate base.

rate of return on average common equity
    The net earnings of a company applicable to common shareholders (before extraordinary items) divided by the company's average total common equity, multiplied by 100.

rate period 
    The specific portion of a 24-hour period or the specific day of the week during which a particular rate is charged for toll calls.

rate rebalancing 
    The process by which the rates for long distance services are reduced while the rates for local services are increased to bring the rates for each more in line with the costs of providing them.

rates and tariffs
    Standards published by AT&T, other common carriers (OCCs), local exchange carriers (LECs), and interexchange carriers (IECs) that define service availability, cost and provisioning

    The process (or computer system) used to determine the customer charge for each billable call. Rates are based on time and duration and on customer contract terms and conditions.

rational pricing 
    Pricing in which contribution levels have been reduced to market-sustainable levels, while the rate levels for individual services within the utility (i.e., local service) segment have been set
at levels that are more closely reflective of the costs of providing such services.

    See relay access unit relay access unit (RAU)

    See regional Bell holding company (RBHC)

RBOC See regional Bell operating company.
regional Bell operating company (RBOC)

RBQ See ringback queue.
ringback queue (RBQ)

RC See repeating coil or rate center.
repeating coil (RC)
rate center (RC)

RCC See radio common carrier.
radio common carrier (RCC)

RCCN See radio common carrier number.
radio common carrier number (RCCN)

RCD See rapid application design and development.
rapid application design and development (RAD)

RD See receive data.
receive data (RD)

RDBMS See relational data base management system.
relational data base management system (RDBMS)

re-engineering A process of reanalysis and radical redesign that is not
bound by previous solutions. Contrast with total quality management
(TQM) or incremental improvement.

re-homing A major network change that involves moving customer services
from one switching center to another and establishing the necessary
trunking facilities to do so.

REACT 2000 Hekimian's Operations Support System (OSS) for provisioning,
monitoring, testing, and administering telecommunications networks.

REACT 2001 Hekimian's OSS that incorporates REACT 2000 capabilities
while adding a graphical user interface (GUI), the ability to process
across multiple computing platforms, a database with relational
abilities, and improved communications with other OSS installations.

read only (RO) Data that is not modifiable by a user.

read only memory (ROM) The portion of computer memory that is
programmed electrically by the manufacturer. It is unchangeable and is
unaffected by power loss.

read/write head A magnetic head able to store, extract, or erase dots
representing data on magnetic media.

real storage The primary storage in an addressable (virtual) storage

real storage address The location of data in memory.

real time 1) Rapid transmission and processing of event-oriented data
and transactions as they occur, in contrast with being stored and
retransmitted or processed as batches. Real-time systems are required
for monitor and control systems, but are not required where long
response times, such as over night, are acceptable. 2) Response to
requests for service on demand. Contrast with time sharing, in which
all requests for service are responded to on a round-robin basis, in a
predetermined time sequence.

real-time clock A device that keeps time within a computer and develops
readable characters or signals allowing the computation of elapsed time
between events.

Real-time transport protocol (RTP) RTP provides end-to-end network
transport functions suitable for applications transmitting real-time
data, such as audio, video or simulation data.

Real-time video (RTV) 1) Single step compression of video. 2) A form of
interframe compression that allows for compression rates of up to 150
to 1.

reasonableness check A test on transmitted data that ensures that the
data in question lies within a given range. A reasonableness check is
one means of protecting a system from data transmission errors.

rebiller See reseller.

recall The act of calling an operator into a connection that was
established by an operator.

receive The action of a station accepting a frame, token, or control
sequence from the medium.

receive data (RD) This is the wire in an RS-232C cable that receives

receive only (RO) A terminal with a page printer and no keyboard or
transmission capability.

receive-only codec A video codec only able to receive communications
signals and process them for local output, for use at receive locations
in point-to-multipoint or broadcast applications such as DBS where
two-way communication with the sending location is not required.

receiving call An audible or visual tone that alerts a station to
incoming calls. The station can be in either off-hook or on-hook
position. See call waiting.
call waiting

recognized private operating agency (RPOA) A private entity that has
the right to receive or originate international traffic in a country.
Some countries have authorized RPOAs to replace or compete with the
traditional postal telephone and telegraph (PTT) monopoly.

record A combination of related data items considered as one unit of

record communications A form of communications that creates a hardcopy
record of the transmission, for example, teleprinters or FAX machines.

recorded announcement See intercept treatment.
intercept treatment

recording systems (TMRS) A computer generated report showing usage
information of telephone systems. Types of usage reported include trunk
utilization, outages, queuing time, and the need for additional common

recovery The resumption of operation and the subsequent restoration of
service following a hardware or software failure.

recovery from fallback Restoration of a system to its former condition
from a fallback mode of operation following a hardware or software
malfunction or total failure. The recovery process may involve updating
information in the files to produce duplicate copies of the file.

red alarm An alarm condition in T1 that indicates an out-of-frame
condition for an incoming DS1 signal for two to three seconds. Synonym:
loss of signal alarm

Red Book The 1984 compilation of the ITU-TS's standards for
telecommunications, including some for ISDN.

red minus luminance (R - Y) One of the two color signals used in
encoding television signals.

Red-Green-Blue (RGB) A type of computer display output signal comprised
of separately controllable red, green and blue signals. The other
technique for output display is composite video which typically offers
less resolution than RGB.

redirect A method of transferring a call to another carrier by using
operator intervention. This method uses a tone to transfer the call to
another network. Do not confuse redirect with the splash method.

redirector A station on a LAN that receives information from a network
server and redirects the information to appear as a local resource to
the local user.

reduced instruction set computer (RISC) The use of integrated circuits
in computers, communications hardware, and instruments. RISC processors
are used in network hubs to perform routing functions at the port level
without adversely affecting network performance.

redundancy 1) The duplication of equipment to minimize the effect of
failures or breakdowns. 2) In data transmission, the portion of
characters and bits that can be eliminated with no loss of information
to reduce the required transmission capacity.

redundancy check A hardware or software check based on the systematic
insertion of components or characters used especially for checking

redundant (information) Video data information which does not change
over time (temporally redundant) or video data information where a
given pixel is surrounded with similar pixels (spatially redundant).

Reed-Solomon Code A forward-error correction technique used for
satellite transmission and CD recordings.

regen stations Points on a fiber-optic network, spaced about 30 miles
apart, where optical signals are regenerated.

regeneration The process of receiving distorted signal pulses and from
them recreating new pulses at the correct repetition rate, pulse
amplitude, and pulse width.

regenerative repeater See regenerator.

regenerator A device that amplifies, reshapes, and retimes incoming
signals then retransmits them on an outgoing circuit. Digital
communications systems use regenerators and analog systems use
repeaters. Synonym: regenerative repeater

Regional Administrative Radio Conference (RARC) A conference of regions
that establishes regional frequencies.

regional Bell holding company (RBHC) See regional holding company.
regional holding company (RHC)

regional Bell operating company (RBOC) See Bell operating company.

regional center Any of the highest-ranked control centers, class 1
offices that connect sectional centers of the telephone system.

regional dynamic routing Dynamically controlled routing within a
geographic region. (See dynamically controlled routing.)
dynamically controlled routing (DCR)

regional holding company (RHC) One of the seven holding companies that
owns one or more Bell operating companies. See Bell operating company
and Modification of Final Judgement.
Modification of Final Judgement (MFJ)

register A device that accepts and stores information, usually a called
number, then uses that information to control the switch.

regulated rate of return (Canada) Bell Canada's utility services are
subject to rate of return regulation (i.e., return on average total
capital), which is determined by the CRTC for regulatory purposes.
After taking into account the costs of debt and preferred equity
capital, this represents the regulated rate of return on average common
equity. The regulated rate of return on average common equity is
calculated by taking the net income applicable to common shareholders
adjusted for regulatory purposes (before extraordinary items), and
dividing it by the average total common equity, multiplied by 100.

regulators The 1982 Modification of Final Judgement (MFJ) assigned the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), the state Public Utilities
Commissions (PUCs), and the federal courts the task of overseeing the
telecommunications industry.

reinitiation time The time required for a device or system to restart,
after a power outage, for example.

relation A two-dimensional table with rows and columns in a relational
data base management system (RDBMS). A table must have at least two
columns. Each row is an instance representing one relationship between
column values, such as a table that relates customer numbers to their

relational data base management system (RDBMS) A structured computer
information storage and retrieval system where the basic unit is a
table with rows and columns. The database is organized and accessed
according to relationships between data items. Data is defined,
accessed and modified with SQL statements. Examples are Sybase, Oracle,
DB2, and SQL/DS. See relation.

relationship The object oriented (OO) concept of any type of
association existing between two or more objects. Examples are:
inheritance, aggregation, requires, provides, connection, and Uses. All
relationships are bidirectional. For example, Parts and Part_of.

relay An electromagnetic switching unit used to operate a circuit.

relay access unit (RAU) This unit performs metallic circuit accesses in
DTAU or Mini-DTAU.

release with howler A loud tone, or howler transmitted over the
telephone line when a telephone is left off-hook for a time without
placing a call. The central office (CO) then disconnects the line until
the receiver is put on-hook again.

relocatability The ability for programs or data to reside in various
memory locations at different times without requiring modification to
the program.

remittance A payment in response to a bill or an invoice.

remote access (RA) 1) The ability of transmission points to gain access
to a computer at a different location. 2) A private branch exchange
(PBX) feature that allows a user at a remote location to access PBX
features by wide-area telecommunications services (WATS) lines.
Individual authorization codes are often required for remote access.
Synonyms: direct-in system access and direct inward system access

remote alarm An alarm received at the transmit end of the circuit to
indicate that a failure has occurred in the receive direction.
(formerly yellow alarm)

remote bridge A high-throughput device for connecting remote local area
networks (LAN)s through a wide area network (WAN).

remote computing See remote processing.
remote processing

remote data concentration The multiplexing of a number of low-end
devices or carriers on to one high-speed line between a remote terminal
and a central processor.

remote file access (RFA) The ability to read from and write to files
placed on a remote system.

remote file service (RFS) A distributed file system protocol developed
by AT&T and used by other vendors.

remote job entry (RJE) The process of submitting batch programs to a
mainframe for execution, and receiving the results at a remote point.
RJE requires a printer/reader terminal, called an RJE terminal.

Remote Login (Rlogin) The service offered by Berkeley 4BSD Unix systems
that allows users of one machine to connect to other Unix systems
across an internet and interact as if their terminals connected to the
machines directly. Although Rlogin offers essentially the same service
as Telnet, it is superior because the software passes information about
the user's environment to the remote machine.

remote maintenance The ability of a remote terminal to access a private
branch exchange (PBX) maintenance menu.

Remote Monitoring (RMON) SNMP specification for multivendor
statistics-gathering by a standards-based (de facto SNMP) management
station from de facto standard (RMON)-compliant devices.

remote monitoring management information base (RMON MIB) A standard for
network management products based on the simple network management
protocol (SNMP).

Remote Procedure Call (RPC) A means of communication between two tasks
running on separate machines linked by a LAN. One machine can request a
service, typically computation, from the other, by executing a high
level request known as a language procedure call. RPCs are an
underlying architectural element of distributed processing and
client/server computing.

remote processing The use of a computer system for processing data
transmitted from other locations.

Remote Program Load (RPL) Starting a computer and loading the operating
system into memory when the operating system software is provided by a
server on the network.

remote resource A device that is available through the network, but is
not connected to the local node.

reorder signal An audible tone, faster than a busy signal, that
indicates all switching paths needed to connect a call are in use.
Synonym: fast busy signal

repeat In token-passing networks, a station receives a frame or token
from an upstream station, repeats it, and places it onto the ring for
its downstream neighbor. A repeating station can examine, copy to a
buffer, or modify control bits in the frame, as appropriate. In some
types of networks, the frame or token is retimed when repeated.

repeater 1) A physical-layer hardware device used on a network to
extend the length, topology, or interconnectivity of the physical
medium beyond that imposed by a single segment, up to the maximum
allowable transmission line length. The repeater performs the basic
actions of restoring signal amplitude, waveform, and timing of signals,
before transmitting the signal to another segment. Synonym: regenerator
See attenuation. 2) A device that propagates electrical signals.

repeating coil (RC) The telephone industry's term for a voice-frequency

repertory dialer See automatic dialer.
automatic dialer

repertory dialing See automatic dialing.
automatic dialing

replication The use of more than one of an item, hardware or software,
to increase security or to allow more traffic to flow.

request for comment (RFC) A document on the Internet that describes all
aspects and issues associated with the Internet protocols or any
computer and telecommunications subject.

request for information (RFI) A request for product information from a

request for proposal (RFP) A request to interested vendors, sent after
an RFI, asking for a price scheme that meets with the potential buyer's

request to send (RTS) 1) A basic data set interchange lead (defined in
an EIA Standard). 2) The computer tells the modem it wants to send
information to the other computer. Only used in half duplex mode.

rerun point A preselected point in a program from which the program is
repeated if an error is detected.

resale The secondary sale or lease of telecommunications services
originally purchased --generally at bulk discount rates -- from a
carrier, such as Bell Canada. Resellers are usually Bell customers and
are entitled to the same provision of company services under the same
terms and conditions as any other customer.

resale carrier A business that purchases services from another business
at a bulk rate and resells portions of those services to multiple
users. Synonym: reseller

Research and Development for Advanced Communications in Europe (RACE) A
research association in the European Economic Community.

reseller An interexchange carrier (IEC) that does not own a network.
Resellers lease bulk capacity and resell portions at a higher rate.

reservation setup protocol (RSVP) RSVP is a network control protocol
allowing an Internet application to obtain a special quality-of-service
(QOS) for its data flow. This generally requires reserving resources
along the data path. RSVP is a component of the future "integrated
services" Internet, which will provide both best-effort and realtime
qualities of service.

reserve power Storage batteries that back-up the primary power source
in a computer or telephone system. Synonym: uninterruptible power

resi residential

residential customer An individual, non-business telephone system

residual error rate The ratio of bits, unit elements, characters, or
undetected error rate blocks, incorrectly received but undetected or
uncorrected by the error-detecting equipment, to the total number of
bits sent.

resolution The number of points, or pixels, per unit of area on a video
display. A display with a finer grid contains more pixels and has a
higher resolution, capable of reproducing more detail in an image.
Resolution determines the quality of the display.

respondent A person included in a focus group or survey.

response time The system reaction time to a given input. For example,
the time that elapses between the user's pressing the send key of a
terminal and the system display of the first character of the reply.

responsible organization (RO and resporg) A long-distance company
responsible for administering and managing the subscriber's records in
the Service Management System (SMS/800). The SMS/800 recognizes only
one resporg for each 800 number. Management includes data entry,
editing records, accepting trouble reports, and referring and clearing
relevant documents.

resporg See responsible organization.
responsible organization (RO and resporg)

restoration The re-establishment of service by rerouting, substitution
of component parts, or as otherwise determined.

restore To make service operative by repair, reassignment, rerouting,
substitution of parts, or otherwise following an interruption.

restricted channel A digital communications channel for which each p or
B channel (ITU-T usage) gives a usable capacity of 56 Kbps instead of
64 Kbps. Still common in North America, this is a remnant of the
ones-density limitation of T1 carrier facilities.

restricted location A location that has been removed from our network
because of a high level of billing fraud in that location.

restricted token A token denoting a special mode of asynchronous
bandwidth allocation, wherein the bandwidth available for the
asynchronous class of service is dedicated to a single extended
dialogue between specific requesters.

restriction See inward restriction, outward restriction, toll
restriction, and fully restricted station.
inward restriction
outward restriction
toll restriction (TR)
fully restricted stations

resynchronization (framing) A signal correction performed because two
frame synchronization errors were detected. These errors were in four
consecutive frame synchronization bits, and there was no frame slip. As
a result, the signal is reframed and the pattern is resynchronized.

resynchronization (pattern) A signal correction performed due to a
disruptive or out-of-service test with a known pattern, more than 307
bit errors occurred in a 10-ms interval. (This rate corresponds to a 1
in 50 error rate.) When this happens, pattern synchronization loss
occurs and both the framing and the pattern are resynchronized..

retard coil A coil having a large inductance which retards sudden
changes of the current flowing through its winding.

retrieval Searching for and accessing information stored in data bank.

retrograde A satellite orbit motion that is opposite to the earth's
direction of rotation, also defined as an orbit with an inclination
greater than 90 degrees

reusability Object design and organization that encourages reuse in
systems other than the original application.

rev loc See revenue location.

revenue accounting office (RAO) The Bell operating company (BOC)
billing location, designated by a three 3 digit code.

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) The TCP/IP protocol a
diskless machine uses at startup to find its IP address.

reverse channel A telecommunications path used for transmitting
supervisory or error control signals. The flow is opposite to that of
information transfer and the bandwidth is lower.

reverse charge call See collect call.
collect call

reverse-battery supervision The reversal of line voltage at the
originating end indicates to the central office (CO) that a called
telephone has gone off-hook.

RF See radio frequency.
radio frequency

RFC See request for comment.
request for comment (RFC)

RFC1294 A request for comment (RFC) drafted for the use of
multi-protocol access over frame relay.

RFI See radio frequency interference or request for information.
radio frequency interference (RFI)
request for information (RFI)

RFP See request for proposal.
request for proposal (RFP)

RFS The AT&T remote file sharing protocol. See remote file service.
remote file service (RFS)

RGB See Red-Green-Blue.
Red-Green-Blue (RGB)

RGB video signal A video signal in which the red (R), green (G), and
blue (B) picture components are present as individual signals.

RGB/N An RGB video signal based on the NTSC 525-line scanning rates.

RGB/P An RGB video signal based on the PAL 625-line scanning rates.

RHC See regional holding company.
regional holding company (RHC)

ring The topology of a local area network in which the wiring is
sequentially connected from one workstation to another, forming a ring.
Data is passed from each workstation around the ring in one direction.
Each workstation examines or copies and repeats the data which finally
returns to the originating station. In a ring topology, network control
is distributed or separated to optimize local control. See distributed
distributed processing

ring again See last number redial.
last number redial

Ring in and Ring out Token Ring connectors on the MSAU connecting the
unit to trunk cabling. The Wrap feature is implemented at these

ring management (RMT) The part of station management (SMT) function
that ensures the integrity of unique addresses on the fiber-distributed
data interface (FDDI) ring.

ring network A network topology with decentralized control. Messages
are passed around the ring from node to node until they reach their
designation or address; most use the token-passing access method. See

ring purge A command on a token ring or fiber-distributed data
interface (FDDI) network that resets the network interface cards (NICs)
and creates a new token.

ring tone, no reply (RTNR) A low tone, one second on and three seconds
off, indicating that ringing current is being sent by the central
office to the receiving telephone. The caller can hear the ringing
tone, but the person on the terminating end of the call doesn't hear

ring topology See ring.

ringback queue (RBQ) A queuing system that requires the user to hang up
after the incoming call is logged. The user is called back when a trunk
becomes available.

ringback tone (RT) See audible ringing tone.
audible ringing tone (ART)

ringdown 1) A circuit or method of signaling where the incoming signal
is activated by alternating current over the circuit. 2) The signaling
method used in manual systems in which picking up one telephone
automatically rings another. The ringing telephone gains an operator's
attention and initiates a current that is sent over the line to engage
a lamp and drop a self-locking relay.

ringing The process of alerting the called party by the application of
an intermittent ac signal (typically 20 Hz) to the appropriate line.
When you apply the ringing signal to the called line, you send an
audible ringback tone to the calling telephone to show that ringing is

ringing key A key that transmits a ringing current.

ringing signal Any transmitted signal, alternating current (AC) or
direct current (DC), that alerts someone or something at the other end
to an incoming call.

RIP See routing information protocol.
routing information protocol (RIP)

RISC See reduced instruction set computer.
reduced instruction set computer (RISC)

riser The main distribution cable segments that run between floors or
sections of a building. See backbone.

RJ-11 Popular name for the standard four-wire modular connector for
phone connections. Modems usually have 2 jacks like this, one to
connect to the phone line, and the other to connect to a telephone to
use when the modem isn't in use.

RJ-45 Popular name for the eight-pin modular connector in the 10BaseT
standard for unshielded twisted pair (UTP) connections to workstations
or smart wiring hubs. The actual connector is described in
International Standards Organization (ISO) standard 8877.

RJE See remote job entry.
remote job entry (RJE)

RLE See run length encoding.
run length encoding (RLE)

Rlogin See Remote Login.
Remote Login (Rlogin)

RMON See Remote Monitoring.
Remote Monitoring (RMON)

RMON MIB See remote monitoring management information base.
remote monitoring management information base (RMON MIB)

RMS root mean square

RMT See ring management.
ring management (RMT)

RNS See Rogers Network Services (RNS).
Rogers Network Services (RNS)

RO or R/O See read only, responsible organization, or receive only.
read only (RO)
responsible organization (RO and resporg)
receive only (RO)

roaming Using a cellular telephone outside the primary service area,
usually at extra charge.

Rogers Network Services (RNS) Rogers Network Services (RNS), a division
of Rogers Communications Inc., was established in 1988 to provide
private line voice, data, image, and broadcast services. Federally
regulated by the CRTC, the company operates in Metropolitan Toronto and
other major centers in Canada.

ROM See read only memory.
read only memory (ROM)

room cutoff The restriction of the telephone in unoccupied hotel/motel
rooms from completing outgoing calls.

room status A feature that stores and displays the occupancy and status
of a hotel/motel room.

rotary The conventional dialing method that uses a dial wheel on a
telephone in a switching system. As the dial wheel returns, a series of
pulses identifies the called station.

rotary dial A type of calling device that generates pulses by manual
rotation and release of a dial, the number of pulses generated is
determined by how far the dial is rotated before being released.

rotary hunt An arrangement that allows calls to seek out the most open
line in a prearranged multi-circuit group and establish a through

rotary output to central office A system that translates a tone-dialed
telephone number into rotary dial pulses and transmits these signals to
the central office.

route The directing of a message to the appropriate line and terminal,
based on information contained in the message header.

route advance A type of automatic route selection that allows the
caller to select the first-choice trunk group.

route diversity Two or more private-line circuits furnished partially
or entirely over two physically separate routes. Serves to prevent a
total loss of service if one cable gets cut or goes out.

route miles Mileage based on the actual routing of a network, rather
than on airline miles.

route optimization See least-cost routing.
least-cost routing (LCR)

route selection See automatic route selection.
automatic route selection (ARS)

router 1) A system that controls message distribution between multiple
optional paths in a network. Routers use routing protocols to gain
information about the network, routing metrics and algorithms to select
the best route. 2) A device that acts as an interface between two
networks and provides network management functions. A router forwards
packets of a specific protocol type, such as IP, from one logical
network to another. A router receives physical layer signals from a
network, performs data link and network layer protocol processing, then
sends the signals via appropriate data link and physical layer
protocols to another network. 3) A protocol-dependent device, similar
to a bridge. A router links only local area networks (LANs) with
identical protocols (such as two NetWare LANs or two Banyan LANs). Like
bridges, routers restrict a LAN's traffic to data specifically intended
for that LAN.

routing The process of finding a suitable path to move information
through a network. As more networks are interconnected, routing becomes
more complex.

routing code See routing indicator.
routing indicator

routing indicator
    A group of characters in the header of a message,
that identifies the final circuit or terminal to which the message is
to be delivered. Synonym: address

routing information protocol (RIP)
    The standard protocol used by major network devices that use the transport layer of transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) to exchange routing information.

routing table
    A data matrix containing available routes and such parameters as user class of service and call destination. The table is used by the switching software to select a route for a given call.

RPC See Remote Procedure Call.
    Remote Procedure Call (RPC)

RPL See Remote Program Load.
    Remote Program Load (RPL)

RPOA See recognized private operating agency.
    recognized private operating agency (RPOA)

RS The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standards.

RS-232 The Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
    Standards specifying various computer, terminal and modem interfaces.

RS-232 Interface
    A device which allows Commodore 64 and 128 computers to use common external modems designed for other platforms.

RS-232C 1) The Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
    Standard for the interface between data communications equipment (DCE) and data terminal equipment (DTE). 2) The 25-pin jack used with that standard. Not all the pins are always used.

RS-422A The Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
    Standard for the electrical characteristics of balanced-voltage digital interface circuits.

RS-423A The Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
    Standard for the electrical characteristics of unbalanced-voltage digital interface circuits.

RS-449 The Electronic Industries Association (EIA)RTV
    Standard that is compatible with RS-232C, but supports higher data rates at greater
distances. The RS-449 interface is a 37-pin connector that supports transmission at data rates up to 2 Mbps at distances up to 200 feet between data communications equipment (DCE) and data terminal equipment (DTE). The additional connections implement more control functions.

RSA See rural service area and metropolitan statistical area.
    rural service area (RSA)
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)

RSVP See reservation setup protocol.
    reservation setup protocol (RSVP)

RT ringback tone See audible ringing tone.

audible ringing tone (ART)

RTNR See ring tone, no reply.
    ring tone, no reply (RTNR)

RTP See real time transport protocol.
    Real-time transport protocol (RTP)

RTS See request to send.
    request to send (RTS)

    See Real-time video (RTV)

    The PC-based emulator used to connect to the IBM AS400 boxes.

run length encoding (RLE) 
    Microsoft's video compression algorithm for base level media PCs. Compresses 8 bit sequences only. Playback is also in 8 bit and isn't scalable for higher power PCs.

rural service area (RSA)
    When the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) began issuing cellular radio licenses, it divided the United States into rural service area (RSA) markets and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) markets. The FCC designated 428 rural service area markets across the country to license cellular operators.



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